Introduction

Khanozai town is completely inhabited by Pashtoons. Major tribes include Kakar ( Panezai, Bazai, Matherzai, Malazai, Barakzai, Esakhel. Sanzerkhel, Saranzai, Shamozai ). There is no ethnic differentiation among them, because they speak one common language, have the same religion and share common cultural values. Their historical background is similar. Pashtoons live more or less the same way of life.The major sources of income are job, agriculture, trade and commerce. In addition. The majority of the people have two meals daily, one in the morning and the other at sunset. However, with the growing affluence and interaction, some persons have breakfast, lunch and dinner. Wheat is the staple food and is used in the form of chapati, nan and takkai (a special kind of bread prepared in ashes). Chapati is normally prepared in the house, while nan is prepared by the nan seller in earthen ovens. Meat, vegetables and lentils are used along with the bread. In summer yoghurt and lassi are also part of the daily diet.

Landi, dried meat, is commonly used during winter. It is generally made of mutton or goat meat. Sheep are specially fattened and slaughtered. The animal is thoroughly cleaned and then it is salted and some special ingredients are rubbed in it. The animal is hanged and exposed to the air and is ready for use after one month. When required for eating, it is boiled for 5 hours in an earthen pot over a slow fire. It is normally eaten when it is extremely cold.

Nowadays the pattern of diet is changing. People eat rice as well. Steam roast, which is cooked over a slow fire is the most favoured dish and it is the speciality of the khanozai and district. Normally men eat apart from the women and children.The majority of the male population wear turban, shalwar and kameez, both in winter and summer. A chaddar (piece of cloth) is always . Women also wear shalwar and kameez. They also wear a shawl over their heads as they observe purdah. The basic style of the dress is always the same. However, with the spread of development and growing prosperity, dresses have become somewhat modernised.In some cases, tribes are headed by a nawab. Sub-tribes are headed by sardars. Most of the sub-tribes live together in a village. Villages are headed by a malik. It is worth mentioning that with the advancement of education and spread of electronic media, their role and authority is dwindling.Decisions are usually centrally made in the Pashtoon society. Policies are formulated by the elders. Some of the decisions are taken for granted. In most cases no individual can argue and challenge the validity of the decisions made by superiors. Kinship is an important variable in the decision-making process. Political organizations are not following the democratic norms.

They are organized either on tribal affinity or common religious or social background. Economic status shapes the political organization and leadership. Welfare works done in the past by a political personality also influence the political behavior of the masses.The role of women at the household level to certain activities such as cooking, washing, managing the house and raising the children. women can cast their vote by without under instruction of their husbands.It is interesting to note that in Pishin district Khanozai is a unique area, in the sense that due to a higher literacy rate, the role of women in its social organisation has changed considerably in this area. They are playing a significant role in social development. What is more important is that the spread effect has also penetrated into adjacent villages. The advancement in female education in this area is the outcome of a tribal chief’s and his daughters’ efforts.

Conclusion and major Development Issues of khanozai.There is homogeneity among different tribes regarding mode of living, food habits and dress. They have a common religion, language and cultural background and that is a binding force to keep them socially integrated. It has been found that religion plays a dominant role in cultural and social life.The joint family system is mostly prevalent in khanozai .There are advantages, such as family strength, pooling family resources, maintenance of social interaction among family members creating a sense of affinity. The customs of co-operation in different economic and social activities are admirable. Caring and sharing problems gives rise to healthy social life, but it is also a stumbling block in the personal development of ambitious individuals. Further, it spurs the dependency ratio, which in turn negatively affects society.

Marriages are generally arranged. However, it has been observed that due to advancement of education, particularly in Khanozai, the practice of vulvar and sarai is dying and the right of inheritance for women is being honoured.The tribal system is deeply rooted because people like living together for defensive or offensive reasons. Kinship is still playing a dominant role in social and political organization of the khanozai. The role of the women in decision making pertaining to outdoor affairs is not very negligible as compare to other area. The issue emanating from such a situation is that kinship and tribal affiliation are stumbling blocks in rational political decision-making.The tradition of resolving disputes through customary laws is largely prevalent. It is economical in the sense that it saves time and money. It is also honored due to social pressure. In recent years, a penal code and civil courts have been introduced and together they are expected to provide justice.

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